Do you see changes in cell morphology after printing and how do you assess this?


Yes, you do, and each printing technology and the printing parameters specified have varying effects. One way to visualize this is using DNA or membrane stains, as shown here.

For a pressure-driven system (syringe + needle), there is data that shows that varying the pressure generally has more effect on morphology change and viability than does varying the needle size, and there are even empirical models to predict the number of live/injured/dead cells according to these dispensing parameters.

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