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There are several ways of utilizing cell metabolism characteristics for medium optimization. Firstly, the metabolism rate of key medium components such as amino acids and vitamins can easily be determined by spent media analysis. The metabolic profiles can then be used for design of stoichiometrically balanced medium formulations. Since metabolic characteristics are dynamic, utilization of metabolism rates measured from both the cell growth phase and stationary production phase are best for stoichiometric balancing of basal and feed media. Secondly, cellular metabolism is an interrelated network and metabolism characteristics can guide the focus of medium optimization. One example is within the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle. For a cell line that tends towards lactate production, medium optimization can address this issue by switching the metabolic flux towards the TCA cycle. Finally, cell metabolism characteristics can also impact the balance between biomass formation and protein production. For a cell line with high growth rate but low productivity, limiting the metabolism rates through medium optimization can force the cells work on protein production thereby improving product yield.